Difference between revisions of "Acute angle-closure glaucoma"

(Disposition)
 
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== Background==
+
==Background==
 +
[[File:PMC4614311 qmj-2015-01-0006-g002.png|thumb|Mechanism of acute angle closure.]]
 +
[[File:PMC3991910 1471-2431-14-96-1.png|thumb|A. Slit lamp exam of the right eye demonstrating diffusely shallow AC, large pupil, and slightly injected conjunctiva. B. Normal slit lamp photograph of the right eye after resolution of acute angle closure C. Anterior segment of the right eye demonstrating abnormal anterior iris convexity, iridocorneal apposition at the angle, and an anterior lens vault D. Normal anterior segment of the right eye demonstrating horizontal iris, no iridocorneal apposition, anterior iris convexity, or anterior lens vault.]]
 
===Pathophysiology===
 
===Pathophysiology===
 
*Obstructed aqueous outflow tract → aqueous humor builds up → increased intraocular pressure (IOP) → optic nerve damage → vision loss
 
*Obstructed aqueous outflow tract → aqueous humor builds up → increased intraocular pressure (IOP) → optic nerve damage → vision loss
Line 5: Line 7:
 
*Acute attack is usually precipitated by pupillary dilation
 
*Acute attack is usually precipitated by pupillary dilation
  
== Clinical Features ==
+
==Clinical Features==
*Abrupt onset of severe (usually unilateral) eye pain
+
[[File:Acute Angle Closure-glaucoma.jpg|thumb|Ciliary/circumcorneal flush and hazy cornea characteristic of acute angle closure glaucoma.]]
*Blurred vision
+
[[File:Acute angle closure glaucoma.jpg|thumb|Right eye with mid-sized, fixed pupil and ciliary flush.]]
*Frontal or supraorbital headache
+
[[File:PMC4601337 oed-7-2015-021f1.png|thumb|Acute angle-closure glaucoma with mid-dilated pupil and an intraocular pressure of 50 mmHg.]]
*Nausea / vomiting / abdominal pain
+
*Abrupt onset of severe (usually [[Red Eye (Unilateral)|unilateral) eye pain]]
 +
*[[Blurred vision]]
 +
*Halos around lights
 +
*Frontal or supraorbital [[headache]]
 +
*[[Nausea]] / [[vomiting]] / [[abdominal pain]]
 +
*Fixed, midposition pupil
 +
*Hazy cornea
 +
*Conjunctival injection most prominent at limbus (ciliary flush)
 +
*Rock-hard globe
  
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
 
{{Unilateral red eye DDX}}
 
{{Unilateral red eye DDX}}
  
==Diagnosis==
+
==Evaluation==
*Fixed, midposition pupil
+
[[File:PMC4614311 qmj-2015-01-0006-g001.png|thumb|(A) shallow anterior chamber at presentation (B) closed iridocorneal angles on gonioscopy.]]
*Hazy cornea
+
*[[intraocular pressure|IOP]] >20 mm Hg
*Conjunctival injection most prominent at limbus (ciliary flush)
+
*[[Slit lamp exam]] shows shallow anterior chamber and ''cell and flare''
*Rock-hard globe
 
*IOP >20 mm Hg
 
*SLIT LAMP exam shows ''Cell and Flare'' which represents visualization of individual cells in the shallow anterior chamber
 
  
 
===Definition: 3 signs + 2 symptoms===
 
===Definition: 3 signs + 2 symptoms===
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**History of intermittent blurring of vision with halos
 
**History of intermittent blurring of vision with halos
  
== Treatment ==
+
==Management==
 +
''Goal of medical therapy is to 'break the attack' in order to prepare the patient for laser iridotomy.<ref>Primary Angle Closure Preferred Practice Pattern Guideline. American Academy of Ophthalmology. [http://www.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/primary-angle-closure-ppp--october-2010 Angle Closure PPP] Accessed 06/17/15.</ref>''
 
#Emergent ophthalmology consult
 
#Emergent ophthalmology consult
#Decrease production of aqueous humor:
+
#Recheck IOP at least hourly
#*'''timolol 0.5% drop''': blocks beta receptors on ciliary epithelium
+
#Elevate head of bed to decrease IOP
#*'''apraclonidine 1% drop''': alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist which increases trabecular outflow
+
#Place patient in a well lit room (prevent pupillary dilation)
#*'''acetazolamide 500mg IV or PO''': blocks productions of HCO3-, which draws Na+ into the eye; water follows by osmosis to form aqueous humour
+
#Start with a topical beta-blocker, α-agonist and PO [[acetazolamide]] if no contraindications
#Facilitate outflow of aqueous humor:
+
 
#*'''pilocarpine 1%–2% drop''': parasympatholytic alkaloid acts on muscarinic receptors found on iris sphincter muscle → causes muscle to contract → miosis
+
===Decrease production of aqueous humor===
#**In USA - green top
+
'''[[Timolol]] 0.5%''':
#**Use one drop every 15 minutes x 2 doses, then every 4 to 6 hours  
+
*Blocks beta receptors on ciliary epithelium
#**Only effective when IOP <40 mm Hg
+
*1 drop in affected eye, repeat in 1 hour if needed.
#Reduce volume of aqueous humor:
+
'''[[Acetazolamide]]:'''
#*'''[[mannitol]] 1–2gm/kg IV''': if no contraindications
+
*Blocks productions of HCO3-, which draws Na+ into the eye; water follows by osmosis to form aqueous humour
#Recheck IOP hourly
+
*500mg IV or PO (PO preferred unless patient is nauseated)
 +
*Can substitute methazolamide 100mg if patient has renal failure.
 +
*Contraindicated in sickle cell patients
 +
'''Dorzolamide (Trusopt) 2%:'''
 +
*topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
 +
*1 drop in affected eye
 +
 
 +
===α2 agonist===
 +
'''Brimonidine ophthalmic (alphagan) 0.2%''' OR '''Apraclonidine ophthalmic 1%''':
 +
*α agonist will increase trabecular outflow
 +
*1 drop in affected eye
 +
 
 +
===Facilitate outflow of aqueous humor===
 +
'''Pilocarpine 1%–2%:'''
 +
*Parasympatholytic alkaloid acts on muscarinic receptors found on iris sphincter muscle → causes muscle to contract → miosis → pulls iris away from trabecular network
 +
*1 drop in affected eye every 15 minutes x 2-4 doses, then every 4 to 6 hours
 +
*Likely does not work until IOP drops below 40-50 mmHg, but still give immediately upon diagnosis
 +
*'''Note:''' may make fundoscopic evaluation more difficult for ophtho consultant due to miosis
 +
 
 +
===Reduce volume of aqueous humor===
 +
These therapies are usually reserved for failure of other treatments. Hyper osmotic agents such as mannitol are effective but are contraindicated in renal failure and can cause hypotension in the volume depleted patient.
 +
*'''[[Mannitol]]''': 1-2 g/kg IV given over 45 minutes to minimize cerebral effecfts (most common)
 +
*'''50% glycerin (Osmoglyn)''' OR '''45% isosorbide (Ismotic)''': 1.5 mL/kg PO (rarely used)
 +
 
 +
===[[Steroids]]===
 +
*Topical steroids not indicated during acute attack, but may help inflammation after IOP under control.
 +
**[[Prednisolone]] acetate 1% 1 gtt every 15 to 30 minutes four times, then q1h <ref>Guluma, K., & Lee, J. E. (2018). Ophthalmology. In Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice (9th ed.). Philadephia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders.</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Disposition==
 +
*Admit for definitive therapy with iridotomy
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[Eye Algorithm (Main)]]
 
*[[Eye Algorithm (Main)]]
 +
*[[Tono-Pen use]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
<references/>
  
[[Category:Ophtho]]
+
[[Category:Ophthalmology]]

Latest revision as of 02:18, 10 February 2021

Background

Mechanism of acute angle closure.
A. Slit lamp exam of the right eye demonstrating diffusely shallow AC, large pupil, and slightly injected conjunctiva. B. Normal slit lamp photograph of the right eye after resolution of acute angle closure C. Anterior segment of the right eye demonstrating abnormal anterior iris convexity, iridocorneal apposition at the angle, and an anterior lens vault D. Normal anterior segment of the right eye demonstrating horizontal iris, no iridocorneal apposition, anterior iris convexity, or anterior lens vault.

Pathophysiology

  • Obstructed aqueous outflow tract → aqueous humor builds up → increased intraocular pressure (IOP) → optic nerve damage → vision loss
  • Increased posterior chamber pressure causes iris to bulge forward (iris bombé) → further obstruction of outflow tract → further increase IOP
  • Acute attack is usually precipitated by pupillary dilation

Clinical Features

Ciliary/circumcorneal flush and hazy cornea characteristic of acute angle closure glaucoma.
Right eye with mid-sized, fixed pupil and ciliary flush.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma with mid-dilated pupil and an intraocular pressure of 50 mmHg.

Differential Diagnosis

Unilateral red eye

^Emergent diagnoses ^^Critical diagnoses

Evaluation

(A) shallow anterior chamber at presentation (B) closed iridocorneal angles on gonioscopy.

Definition: 3 signs + 2 symptoms

  • At least 3 of these signs:
    • IOP >21 mm Hg
    • Conjunctival injection
    • Corneal epithelial edema
    • Mid-dilated nonreactive pupil
    • Shallow anterior chamber with occlusion
  • At least 2 of these symptoms:
    • Ocular pain
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • History of intermittent blurring of vision with halos

Management

Goal of medical therapy is to 'break the attack' in order to prepare the patient for laser iridotomy.[1]

  1. Emergent ophthalmology consult
  2. Recheck IOP at least hourly
  3. Elevate head of bed to decrease IOP
  4. Place patient in a well lit room (prevent pupillary dilation)
  5. Start with a topical beta-blocker, α-agonist and PO acetazolamide if no contraindications

Decrease production of aqueous humor

Timolol 0.5%:

  • Blocks beta receptors on ciliary epithelium
  • 1 drop in affected eye, repeat in 1 hour if needed.

Acetazolamide:

  • Blocks productions of HCO3-, which draws Na+ into the eye; water follows by osmosis to form aqueous humour
  • 500mg IV or PO (PO preferred unless patient is nauseated)
  • Can substitute methazolamide 100mg if patient has renal failure.
  • Contraindicated in sickle cell patients

Dorzolamide (Trusopt) 2%:

  • topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
  • 1 drop in affected eye

α2 agonist

Brimonidine ophthalmic (alphagan) 0.2% OR Apraclonidine ophthalmic 1%:

  • α agonist will increase trabecular outflow
  • 1 drop in affected eye

Facilitate outflow of aqueous humor

Pilocarpine 1%–2%:

  • Parasympatholytic alkaloid acts on muscarinic receptors found on iris sphincter muscle → causes muscle to contract → miosis → pulls iris away from trabecular network
  • 1 drop in affected eye every 15 minutes x 2-4 doses, then every 4 to 6 hours
  • Likely does not work until IOP drops below 40-50 mmHg, but still give immediately upon diagnosis
  • Note: may make fundoscopic evaluation more difficult for ophtho consultant due to miosis

Reduce volume of aqueous humor

These therapies are usually reserved for failure of other treatments. Hyper osmotic agents such as mannitol are effective but are contraindicated in renal failure and can cause hypotension in the volume depleted patient.

  • Mannitol: 1-2 g/kg IV given over 45 minutes to minimize cerebral effecfts (most common)
  • 50% glycerin (Osmoglyn) OR 45% isosorbide (Ismotic): 1.5 mL/kg PO (rarely used)

Steroids

  • Topical steroids not indicated during acute attack, but may help inflammation after IOP under control.
    • Prednisolone acetate 1% 1 gtt every 15 to 30 minutes four times, then q1h [2]

Disposition

  • Admit for definitive therapy with iridotomy

See Also

References

  1. Primary Angle Closure Preferred Practice Pattern Guideline. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Angle Closure PPP Accessed 06/17/15.
  2. Guluma, K., & Lee, J. E. (2018). Ophthalmology. In Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice (9th ed.). Philadephia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders.