Difference between revisions of "Croup"

(added note to treatment)
(Background)
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*Etiology
 
*Etiology
 
**Parainfluenza (50%), [[Bronchiolitis (RSV)|RSV]], rhinovirus  
 
**Parainfluenza (50%), [[Bronchiolitis (RSV)|RSV]], rhinovirus  
***Consider diphtheria if not immunized
+
***Consider [[Diphtheria]] if not immunized
 
*Spasmodic croup
 
*Spasmodic croup
 
**Sudden onset of barking cough/stridor
 
**Sudden onset of barking cough/stridor

Revision as of 23:07, 14 June 2014

Background

  • Croup = laryngotracheobronchitis
  • Affects 6 mo-3 yr (peak in 2nd year)
  • Fall & winter
  • Etiology
    • Parainfluenza (50%), RSV, rhinovirus
  • Spasmodic croup
    • Sudden onset of barking cough/stridor
    • No viral prodrome, unlike standard croup
    • Difficult to differentiate from croup
  • Must rule-out foreign body

Diagnosis

  1. 1-2 day of URI followed by barking cough, stridor
  2. Low-grade fever
  3. NO drooling or dysphagia
  4. Duration = 3-7d, most severe on days 3-4

Croup Score

  • Inspiratory stridor
    • None (0 points)
    • When agitated (1 points)
    • On/off at rest (2 points)
    • Continuous at rest (3 points)
  • Retractions
    • None (0 points)
    • Mild (1 points)
    • Moderate (2 points)
    • Severe (3 points)
  • Air entry
    • Normal (0 points)
    • Decreased (1 points)
    • Moderately decreased (2 points)
    • Severely decreased (3 points)
  • Cyanosis
    • None (0 points)
    • When crying (2 points)
    • At rest (3 points)
  • Alertness
    • Alert (0 points)
    • Restless, anxious (2 points)
    • Depressed (3 points)

Assessment

  • <2 Very mild
  • 2-9 Mild to moderately severe
  • >9 Severe croup

Work-Up

  1. Consider CXR if concerned about alternative dx
    1. Steeple sign on AP (not Sp, not Sn)
  2. Consider nasal washings for RSV, parainfluenza, influenza.

Treatment

  1. Cool mist
  2. Steroids
    1. Give to all pts with croup
      1. Dexamethasone 0.15-0.6mg/kg PO/IM (max 10mg)
  3. Epinephrine (nebulized)
    1. Give for moderate-severe cases
    2. Racemic epinephrine decreases the need for intubation, and should be tried before intubation.
  4. Do NOT give albuterol (may worsen edema (vasodilation))
  5. Intubation rarely needed
    1. Use one half size smaller tube if intubating

Disposition

  1. Consider discharge if:
    1. 3hr since last epinephrine
    2. Able to tolerate PO
    3. Nontoxic appearance
  2. Admit:
    1. Persistent respiratory sx/signs
    2. ≥2 tx with epinephrine

External Links

See Also

Bronchiolitis (RSV)

Source

  • Tintinalli
  • Rosen