Hepatitis B: Difference between revisions

(Text replacement - "==Diagnosis==" to "==Evaluation==")
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==Background==
==Background==
 
*Blood-borne virus
*Incubation period: 1-3 months
*Virus can cause acute, chronic, or asymptomatic infection
==Clinical Features==
==Clinical Features==
*[[Nausea/vomiting]]
*[[RUQ pain]]
*[[Jaundice]]
*[[Fever]]


==Differential Diagnosis==
==Differential Diagnosis==


==Evaluation==
==Evaluation==
*AST, ALT > 1000s
*Elevated bilirubin
*Elevated alk phophatase
*Elevated INR
*Acute hepatitis panel:
{| class="wikitable"
! Anti-hepatitis A, IgM
! Hepatitis B surface antigen
! Anti-hepatitis B core, IgM
! Anti-hepatitis C
! Interpretation
|-
| Positive
| Negative
| Negative
| Negative
| Acute hepatitis A
|-
| Negative
| Positive
| Positive
| Negative
| Acute hepatitis B
|-
| Negative
| Positive
| Negative
| Negative
| Chronic hepatitis B infection
|-
| Negative
| Negative
| Positive
| Negative
| Acute hepatitis B; quantity of hepatitis B surface antigen is too low to detect
|-
| Negative
| Negative
| Negative
| Positive
| Acute or chronic hepatitis C; additional tests are required to make the determination
|}


==Management==
==Management==
*Supportive care for acute disease
===Post Exposure Prophylaxis===
===Post Exposure Prophylaxis===
{{Hepatitis B post exposure prophylaxis}}
{{Hepatitis B post exposure prophylaxis}}
==Disposition==
==Disposition==
*Consider admission for:
*INR >2, Bilirubin >30, hypoglycemia
*Any GI bleeding
*Intractable pain, inability to tolerate PO
*Significant comorbidity/immunocompromised or age >50 years


==See Also==
==See Also==
 
*[[viral hepatitis]]
*[[Acute hepatitis]]
*[[Jaundice]]
==External Links==
==External Links==
*[[Antibiotics (By_Diagnosis)]]
*[[Antibiotics (By_Diagnosis)]]

Revision as of 19:52, 8 September 2016

Background

  • Blood-borne virus
  • Incubation period: 1-3 months
  • Virus can cause acute, chronic, or asymptomatic infection

Clinical Features

Differential Diagnosis

Evaluation

  • AST, ALT > 1000s
  • Elevated bilirubin
  • Elevated alk phophatase
  • Elevated INR
  • Acute hepatitis panel:
Anti-hepatitis A, IgM Hepatitis B surface antigen Anti-hepatitis B core, IgM Anti-hepatitis C Interpretation
Positive Negative Negative Negative Acute hepatitis A
Negative Positive Positive Negative Acute hepatitis B
Negative Positive Negative Negative Chronic hepatitis B infection
Negative Negative Positive Negative Acute hepatitis B; quantity of hepatitis B surface antigen is too low to detect
Negative Negative Negative Positive Acute or chronic hepatitis C; additional tests are required to make the determination

Management

  • Supportive care for acute disease

Post Exposure Prophylaxis

Hepatitis B Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

Treatment is generally initiated after coordination with occupational health and infectious disease service and based the the exposed patient's vaccination history[1]

Unvaccinated

  • If the source is HBsAg(+) then give HBIG x1 and initiate HBV vaccine in two separate sites
  • If source is HGsAG(-) then start the HBV vaccine series
  • If source blood is unavailable and high risk then give HBIG x1 initiate the HBV series
    • If source blood is low risk and unavailable then begin HBV series

Previously vaccinated non responder (one series)

Non responder status is defined as anti-has <10mIU/mL

  • If the source is HBsAg(+) then give HBIG x 1 and begin revaccination series
    • Can also opt to perform second HBIG administration in one month
  • If source is HBsAg(-) then no treatment is needed
  • If source blood is unavailable and high risk then treat as if HBsAg(+)

Previously vaccinated non responder (two series)

Non responder status is defined as anti-has <10mIU/mL

  • If the source is HBsAg(+) then give HBIG x2 and no HBV series
  • If source is HGsAG(-) then no treatment is needed
  • If source blood is unavailable then initiate the HBV series

Treatment Dosing

No contraindications for pregnancy or breast feeding

  • HBIG 0.06 mL/kg IM
    • Give in opposite arm from hepatitis B vaccine if patient also receiving vaccine
  • Vaccination series: HBV vaccine options:
    • Engerix-B 20mcg IM
    • Recombivax HB 10mcg IM

Disposition

  • Consider admission for:
  • INR >2, Bilirubin >30, hypoglycemia
  • Any GI bleeding
  • Intractable pain, inability to tolerate PO
  • Significant comorbidity/immunocompromised or age >50 years

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Postexposure prophylaxis to prevent hepatitis b virus infection. CDC MMWR http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5516a3.htm?s_cid=rr5516a3_e