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Tetrodotoxin and the Blue Ringed Octopus

Tetrodotoxin is from the pufferfish, blue octopus and some poisonous frogs. Neurotoxicity results from inhibition of Na-K pumps causing paresthesias and rebound hypersensitivity. Like most poisons in toxicology, the treatment is aggressive supportive care.… Read more

The Current State of Refractory VF

The following guest post is written by MD candidate Joseph N. Ponce at McGovern Medical School, Houston TX, and describes the current state of evidence with adjunctive techniques to treat refractory VF.

Refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) is a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia unresponsive to traditional methods of defibrillation and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). Current literature lacks a uniform definition for RVF, however, some studies provide more specific clinical definitions of refractory ventricular fibrillation such as ventricular fibrillation that is resistant to at least three defibrillation attempts, 300 mg of amiodarone, and does not exhibit return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after > 10 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).… Read more

Dialysis complications

You get a patch from EMS that they are bringing in a patient from dialysis with a complication of their AV fistula. Take the time now to update yourself on bleeding fistulas, clotted fistula, and more at WikEM – Dialysis Complications.… Read more


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