Difference between revisions of "Marine toxins, envenomations, and bites"

(Differential Diagnosis)
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==Differential Diagnosis==
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
#Toxins
+
{{Marine envenomation DDX}}
##[[Scombroid]]
 
##[[Ciguatera]]
 
#[[Marine Sting | Stingers]]
 
##Stingrays
 
#Venomous fish (catfish, zebrafish, scorpion fish, stonefish)
 
##Sea urchins
 
##cone shells
 
#[[Nematocysts]]
 
##Jellyfish (Cnidaria)
 
##Portuguese man-of-war
 
##Corals
 
##Fire Corals
 
##Sea anemones
 
##Sea wasps
 
#Bites
 
##[[Octopus Bites | Octopus]]
 
  
 
==Treatment==
 
==Treatment==

Revision as of 20:31, 24 October 2014

Background

Mechanism

  • Punctures skin to introduce venom
  • Generally local symptoms without systemic effects

Diagnosis

Symptoms

  • Vary with species
  • Generally local pain
  • Systemic symptoms can include vomiting, hypotension, muscle cramps, paralysis, cardiac arrest

Differential Diagnosis

Marine toxins, envenomations, and bites

Treatment

  • Supportive
  • If visible remove spines and stinger
  • Immediately immerse wound in hot water (45°C for 30-90min)
  • Clean area
  • Tetanus prophylaxis
  • Antivenom exists for stonefish toxicity

Sources

  • Auerbach PS. Marine envenomations. N Engl J Med. 1991.
  • Atkinson PRT. Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation? Emergency Medicine Journal. 2006;23(7):503–508. doi:10.1136/emj.2005.028456.