Difference between revisions of "Marine toxins, envenomations, and bites"

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#Toxins
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==Background==
##[[Scombroid]]
 
##[[Ciguatera]]
 
#[[Marine Sting | Stingers]]
 
##Stingrays
 
#Venomous fish (catfish, zebrafish, scorpion fish, stonefish)
 
##Sea urchins
 
##cone shells
 
#[[Nematocysts]]
 
##Jellyfish (Cnidaria)
 
##Portuguese man-of-war
 
##Corals
 
##Fire Corals
 
##Sea anemones
 
##Sea wasps
 
#Bites
 
##[[Octopus Bites | Octopus]]
 
  
==CME==
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{{Marine envenomation DDX}}
<quiz display=simple>
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{Environmental emergencies question – Regarding black widow and brown recluse spider envenomations, which of the following is FALSE?
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===Visual diagnosis of causative organisms===
|type="()"}
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<gallery mode="packed">
-Black widow spiders (BWS) are found in the temperate regions of six continents and are widespread through North America, including the western United States (California included).  
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File:Dasyatis pastinaca01.jpg|Common [[stingray]]
-Signs and symptoms associated with BWS (e.g. diffuse pain, muscle cramps, tachycardia, and hypertension) usually develop begin within 30 to 120 minutes of the envenomation.  
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File:Oysters of the day 01.jpg|[[Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning|Shellfish ingestion]]
-After antivenom for BWS is administered, symptoms typically resolve within 30 minutes, with complete relief within 2 hours.
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File:Textile cone.jpg|frameless|right|[[Cone shell envenomation|Cone shell]]
+Brown recluse spider (BRS) envenomation is most common in west coast states, such as California.  
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File:Lionfish.jpg|[[Lionfish envenomation|Lion fish]]
||Harwood-Nuss – 1734-1739. Although BWS occur in Southern California, BRS are most common in the southern Midwestern states (but not California). Note that BRS have more local toxicity with eschar formation and necrosis, and these should not be debrided or excised. BRS may result in hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis. There is no antivenom available for BRS in the US, but there is one for BWS, which manifest severe life-threatening systemic signs.  
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File:Stone Fish at AQWA SMC2006.jpg|[[Stonefish]]
-Most bites from BRS have a benign clinical course, but necrosis with induration and eschar formation may occur, and systemic effects, such as fever, chills, headache, malaise, arthralgia, and myalgias progress after more than 24 to 48 hours and resolve by 72 to 96 hours post bite.
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File:Phylum porifera.jpg|[[Sponges]]
</quiz>
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File:Avispa marina cropped.png|[[Box jellyfish]]
[[Category:Tox]]
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File:Lithothamnion sp..jpg|[[Coral reef]]
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File:Portuguese Man-O-War (Physalia physalis).jpg|[[Portuguese Man-O-War]]
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File:Actiniaria.jpg|[[Sea anemones]]
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</gallery>
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==Clinical Features==
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===Visual diagnosis of disese patterns===
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<gallery mode="packed">
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File:Stingray injury.jpg|[[Stingray injury]]
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File:PMC4373524 40409 2015 7 Fig6 HTML.png|[[Lionfish envenomation]]
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File:PMC4862076 12995 2016 112 Fig1 HTML.png|[[Stonefish envenomation]]
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File:PMC3760923 abd-88-0496-g06.png|[[Seabather's eruption]]
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</gallery>
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==Differential Diagnosis==
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{{Water related injuries DDX}}
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{{Bites and stings DDX}}
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==Evaluation==
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*See specific injury type
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==Management==
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*See specific injury type
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==Disposition==
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*See specific injury type
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==See Also==
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*[[Envenomations, bites and stings]]
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*[[Water-related injuries]]
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==External Links==
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==References==
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<references/>
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[[Category:Toxicology]]
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[[category:Environmental]]

Latest revision as of 20:34, 11 March 2021

Background

Marine toxins, envenomations, and bites

Visual diagnosis of causative organisms

Clinical Features

Visual diagnosis of disese patterns

Differential Diagnosis

Water-related injuries

Envenomations, bites and stings

Evaluation

  • See specific injury type

Management

  • See specific injury type

Disposition

  • See specific injury type

See Also

External Links

References