Difference between revisions of "Marine toxins, envenomations, and bites"

(Differential Diagnosis)
 
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==Background==
 
==Background==
===Mechanism===
 
*Punctures skin to introduce venom
 
*Generally local symptoms without systemic effects
 
  
==Diagnosis==
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{{Marine envenomation DDX}}
===Symptoms===
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*Vary with species
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===Visual diagnosis of causative organisms===
*Generally local pain
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<gallery mode="packed">
*Systemic symptoms can include  vomiting, hypotension, muscle cramps, paralysis, cardiac arrest
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File:Dasyatis pastinaca01.jpg|Common [[stingray]]
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File:Oysters of the day 01.jpg|[[Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning|Shellfish ingestion]]
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File:Textile cone.jpg|frameless|right|[[Cone shell envenomation|Cone shell]]
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File:Lionfish.jpg|[[Lionfish envenomation|Lion fish]]
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File:Stone Fish at AQWA SMC2006.jpg|[[Stonefish]]
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File:Phylum porifera.jpg|[[Sponges]]
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File:Avispa marina cropped.png|[[Box jellyfish]]
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File:Lithothamnion sp..jpg|[[Coral reef]]
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File:Portuguese Man-O-War (Physalia physalis).jpg|[[Portuguese Man-O-War]]
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File:Actiniaria.jpg|[[Sea anemones]]
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</gallery>
 +
 
 +
==Clinical Features==
 +
 
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===Visual diagnosis of disese patterns===
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<gallery mode="packed">
 +
File:Stingray injury.jpg|[[Stingray injury]]
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File:PMC4373524 40409 2015 7 Fig6 HTML.png|[[Lionfish envenomation]]
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File:PMC4862076 12995 2016 112 Fig1 HTML.png|[[Stonefish envenomation]]
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File:PMC3760923 abd-88-0496-g06.png|[[Seabather's eruption]]
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</gallery>
  
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
{{Marine envenomation DDX}}
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{{Water related injuries DDX}}
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{{Bites and stings DDX}}
 +
 
 +
==Evaluation==
 +
*See specific injury type
 +
 
 +
==Management==
 +
*See specific injury type
 +
 
 +
==Disposition==
 +
*See specific injury type
 +
 
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==See Also==
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*[[Envenomations, bites and stings]]
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*[[Water-related injuries]]
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==External Links==
  
==Treatment==
 
*Supportive
 
*If visible remove spines and stinger
 
*'''Immediately immerse wound in hot water (45°C for 30-90min)'''
 
*Clean area
 
*Tetanus prophylaxis
 
*Antivenom exists for stonefish toxicity
 
  
==Sources==
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==References==
*Auerbach PS. Marine envenomations. N Engl J Med. 1991.
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<references/>
*Atkinson PRT. Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation? Emergency Medicine Journal. 2006;23(7):503–508. doi:10.1136/emj.2005.028456.
 
  
[[Category:Tox]][[category:Environ]]
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[[Category:Toxicology]]
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[[category:Environmental]]

Latest revision as of 20:34, 11 March 2021

Background

Marine toxins, envenomations, and bites

Visual diagnosis of causative organisms

Clinical Features

Visual diagnosis of disese patterns

Differential Diagnosis

Water-related injuries

Envenomations, bites and stings

Evaluation

  • See specific injury type

Management

  • See specific injury type

Disposition

  • See specific injury type

See Also

External Links

References