Negative-pressure pulmonary edema
- Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) occurs after a patient makes strong inspiratory effort against a blocked airway. The negative pressure causes hydrostatic edema that can be life-threatening if not but minimized if treated early, usually resolves after 24-48 hours. 
- Patients have and airway obstructive process either from an allergy, laryngospasm, trauma, and commonly in the case of hangings.
- Respiratory distress
- Increased jugular venous distension
- Signs of poor organ perfusion
- Other Associated with Normal/↑ Respiratory Effort
- Other Associated with ↓ Respiratory Effort
- Uncorrected ASD
- Congenital heart disease
- COPD exacerbation
- Interstitial lung disease
- Panic attack
- Pleural effusion
- Rib fracture
- Spontaneous pneumothorax
- Thyroid Disease
- Remove any obstructive processes
- Intubation is often required
- Positive pressure ventilation
- Patients with severe pulmonary edema that do not respond to standard ventilator strategies may require proning or even ECMO
- Admission for continued monitoring often if not always in the ICU
- Bhattacharya M, Kallet RJ, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Negative-pressure pulmonary edema. Chest. 2016;150(4):927-33.
- Contou D, Voiriot G, Djibre et al. Clinical features of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to negative-pressure pulmonary edema. Lung. 2017;195(4):477-487.