Difference between revisions of "Perinephric abscess"

(Defined perinephric abscesses, expanded on the pathophysiology and treatment. Also sited a primary article related to pathophys)
(Background)
 
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==Background==
 
==Background==
A perinephric abscess is a suppuration (i.e. abscess) of the perinephric fat that abuts the renal cortex. Perinephric abscesses can arise as a complication either a pre-existing [[pyelonephritis]] or from hematogenous seeding from [[bacteremia]] of any kind. A 10-year retrospective study in 2016 identifying the causative agent of perinephric abscesses found that about 51.4% of perinephric abscesses were caused by [[E. coli]], and that about 10% were caused by [[S. aureus]], thus suggesting that the majority of perinephric abscesses arise as a complication of [[pyelonephritis]]. Perinephric abscesses are a distinct entity from renal abscesses in that renal abscesses arise from necrosis of the renal parenchyma and typically arise from pyelonephritis (although hematogenous seeding does occur), whereas perinephric abscess involves a diffuse liquefactive necrosis of the perinephric fat between the renal cortex and Gerota's fascia. Perinephric abscesses have a higher theoretical risk of morbidity because of the fact that the infection can easily spread to the lubosacral area posterioriy and abdominal cavity anteriorly. For this and other reasons, perinephric abscesses of ANY size should prompt a discussion with urology and/or interventional radiology about the possibility of drainage, in addition to parenteral antibiotics. On the other hand, drainage of nephric abscesses is typically only indicated if the size of the abscess exceeds 5 cm.
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[[File:Blausen 0592 KidneyAnatomy 01.png|thumb|Renal anatomy.]]
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[[File:PMC5265200 13244 2016 536 Fig1 HTML.png|thumb|Perinephric space with exaggerated pararenal space to show retroperitoneal structures. Perinephric bridging septa are seen between the left kidney and the adjacent renal fascia.]]
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*An [[abscess]] of the perinephric fat that abuts the renal cortex
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*Can arise as a complication either a pre-existing [[pyelonephritis]] (majority) or from hematogenous seeding  
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===Causative Organisms<ref>Liu XQ, et al. Renal and perinephric abscesses in West China Hospital: 10-year retrospective-descriptive study. World Journal of Nephrology. 2016 Jan;5(1):108-14.</ref>===
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*[[E. coli]] (51.4%)
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*[[S. aureus]] (10%)  
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{{Perinephric vs Renal Abscess}}
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{{UTI types}}
  
 
==Clinical Features==
 
==Clinical Features==
 
*Sign/symptoms similar to [[pyelo]] ([[fever]], CVAT, dysuria)
 
*Sign/symptoms similar to [[pyelo]] ([[fever]], CVAT, dysuria)
*Occurs in setting of ascending infection with obstructed pyelo
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*Occurs in setting of ascending infection with obstructed [[pyelo]]
  
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
 
{{Dysuria DDX}}
 
{{Dysuria DDX}}
  
==Workup==
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==Evaluation==
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===Laboratory Testing===
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*CBC - Although it is a non-specific finding, a leukocytosis is typically seen.
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*Chemistry Panel - Lactic acidosis is a common finding and is seen earlier in the disease course in diabetic patients. Renal insufficiency is also commonly seen as well.
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*[[Urinalysis]] - Will often show evidence of pyelonephritis, however if the perinephric [[abscess]] is secondary to hematogenous spread, the urine could be sterile. Therefore a negative U/A does NOT rule out a perinephric abscess.
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*Blood and urine cultures
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===Imaging===
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*CT
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**Imaging modality of choice
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**Sensitivity ~90%.
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*[[Renal ultrasound]] - A fluid filled mass extending from the renal cortex into the perinephric fat can be seen.
  
 
==Management==
 
==Management==
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*[[Antibiotic therapy]] depends on the suspected cause
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**[[Pyelonephritis]] (enterobacteriaceae):  third generation [[cephalosporin]] + [[quinolone]]
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**Hematogenous ([[staphylococcus]])): [[vancomycin]]
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**Known to be colonized by [[ESBL]]: [[carbapenem]]
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*Abscess drainage
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**Abscess of ANY size requires IR for percutaneous drainage
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**If any urological obstruction is suspected ([[nephrolithiasis]], [[ureterolithiasis]], external compression from abdominal cavity, presence of pre-existing ureteral stent), emergent urological consultation should be obtained
  
 
==Disposition==
 
==Disposition==
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*Admission
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
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*[[pyelonephritis]]
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*[[Emphysematous pyelonephritis]]
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*[[Renal abscess]]
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*[[Urolithiasis]]
  
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
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==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
 
[[Category:Renal]]
 
[[Category:Renal]]
 
[[Category:Urology]]
 
[[Category:Urology]]
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[[Category:ID]]

Latest revision as of 11:18, 2 May 2020

Background

Renal anatomy.
Perinephric space with exaggerated pararenal space to show retroperitoneal structures. Perinephric bridging septa are seen between the left kidney and the adjacent renal fascia.
  • An abscess of the perinephric fat that abuts the renal cortex
  • Can arise as a complication either a pre-existing pyelonephritis (majority) or from hematogenous seeding

Causative Organisms[1]

Perinephric vs renal abscess

Perinephric Renal
Necrotic Area Perinephric fat between the renal cortex and Gerota's fascia Renal parenchyma
Cause Pyelonephritis (majority) Pyelonephritis (vast majority)
Risk of morbidity Higher Lower

Genitourinary infection

(1) Human urinary system: (2) kidney; (3) renal pelvis; (4) ureter; (5) urinary bladder (6) urethra.
Additional structures: (7) adrenal gland; (8) renal artery and vein; (9) inferior vena cava; (10) abdominal aorta; (11) common iliac artery and vein; (12) liver; (13) large intestine; (14) pelvis.

"UTI" frequently refers specifically to acute cystitis, but may also be used as a general term for all urinary infections; use location-specific diagnosis.

Clinical Features

  • Sign/symptoms similar to pyelo (fever, CVAT, dysuria)
  • Occurs in setting of ascending infection with obstructed pyelo

Differential Diagnosis

Dysuria

Evaluation

Laboratory Testing

  • CBC - Although it is a non-specific finding, a leukocytosis is typically seen.
  • Chemistry Panel - Lactic acidosis is a common finding and is seen earlier in the disease course in diabetic patients. Renal insufficiency is also commonly seen as well.
  • Urinalysis - Will often show evidence of pyelonephritis, however if the perinephric abscess is secondary to hematogenous spread, the urine could be sterile. Therefore a negative U/A does NOT rule out a perinephric abscess.
  • Blood and urine cultures

Imaging

  • CT
    • Imaging modality of choice
    • Sensitivity ~90%.
  • Renal ultrasound - A fluid filled mass extending from the renal cortex into the perinephric fat can be seen.

Management

Disposition

  • Admission

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Liu XQ, et al. Renal and perinephric abscesses in West China Hospital: 10-year retrospective-descriptive study. World Journal of Nephrology. 2016 Jan;5(1):108-14.