Difference between revisions of "Pharyngitis"

(Evaluation)
(References)
 
(10 intermediate revisions by 6 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
==Background==
 
==Background==
 +
*2% of all ED visits
 +
*Viral is most common
 +
**Exudates do not mean bacterial- most common cause of exudative pharyngitis is still viral
 
===[[Streptococcal pharyngitis]]===
 
===[[Streptococcal pharyngitis]]===
 
*Accounts for only 15-30% of pharyngitis
 
*Accounts for only 15-30% of pharyngitis
Line 12: Line 15:
 
*[[Nausea and vomiting]]
 
*[[Nausea and vomiting]]
 
*Tonsillar exudate
 
*Tonsillar exudate
*Palatal petechiae
+
*Palatal [[petechiae]]
 +
*If status post treatment for bacterial pharyngitis with [[amoxicillin]] or [[ampicillin]] and develop pruritic maculopapular [[rash]], this is classic for [[EBV]] pharyngitis
 +
 
 +
{{Modified Centor Criteria}}
 +
 
 +
==Complications==
 +
*[[Acute rheumatic fever]]
 +
*[[Scarlet fever]]
 +
*[[Toxic shock syndrome]]
 +
*[[Post-streptococcal glomerular nephritis]]
 +
*[[Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococci (PANDAS)]]
 +
*[[Peritonsillar abscess]]
 +
*Cervical [[lymphadenitis]]
 +
*[[Mastoiditis]]
  
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
 
==Differential Diagnosis==
Line 20: Line 36:
  
 
==Evaluation==
 
==Evaluation==
{{Modified Centor Criteria}}
+
{{RADT algorithm}}
  
 
==Management==
 
==Management==
Line 27: Line 43:
  
 
===[[Steroids]]===
 
===[[Steroids]]===
*Single dose of [[dexamethasone]] shortens duration of pain<ref>Hayward G, Thompson MJ, Perera R, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ. Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;10:CD008268. PMID: 23076943.</ref>
+
*In adults consider single dose of [[dexamethasone]] 0.6mg/kg PO (Max = 10mg)<ref>[[EBQ:TOAST Trial]]</ref>
**[[Dexamethasone]] 0.6mg/kg PO - maximum of 10mg
+
*In children consider single dose of [[dexamethasone]] 0.6mg/kg PO (Max = 10mg)<ref>Olympia, R. P. (2003). The Effectiveness of Oral Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Pharyngitis in Children and Young Adults. Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(5). doi: 10.1197/aemj.10.5.434-a </ref>
  
 
==Disposition==
 
==Disposition==
 
*Discharge
 
*Discharge
 
==Complications==
 
*[[Acute rheumatic fever]]
 
*[[Scarlet fever]]
 
*[[Toxic shock syndrome]]
 
*[[Post-streptococcal glomerular nephritis]]
 
*PANDAS syndrome
 
*[[Peritonsillar abscess]]
 
*Cervical lymphadenitis
 
*[[Mastoiditis]]
 
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[Sore Throat]]
 
*[[Sore Throat]]
 +
*[[EBQ:TOAST Trial]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 52: Line 59:
 
[[Category:ENT]]
 
[[Category:ENT]]
 
[[Category:ID]]
 
[[Category:ID]]
 +
[[Category:Symptoms]]

Latest revision as of 19:55, 6 October 2019

Background

  • 2% of all ED visits
  • Viral is most common
    • Exudates do not mean bacterial- most common cause of exudative pharyngitis is still viral

Streptococcal pharyngitis

  • Accounts for only 15-30% of pharyngitis
  • Peak in 5-15yr old
  • Rare in <2yr of age

Clinical Features

culture positive strep pharyngitis with typical tonsillar exudate

Modified Centor Criteria[1]

One point is given for each of the criteria:[1]

  1. Absence of a cough
  2. Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
  3. Temperature >38.0 °C (100.4 °F)
  4. Tonsillar exudate or swelling
  5. Age less than 15^
    • Subtract a point if age >44
Modified Centor score
Points Probability of Streptococcal pharyngitis
1 or fewer <10%
2 11–17%
3 28–35%
4 or 5 52%

Complications

Differential Diagnosis

Acute Sore Throat

Bacterial infections

Viral infections

Noninfectious

Other

Oral rashes and lesions

Evaluation

Rapid Antigen Detection Test Algorithm for Acute Pharyngitis[3]

Category Testing and Treatment
Clinical features strongly suggesting viral etiology (eg. cough, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, oral ulcers)
  • None
<3 years old
  • None because immature immune system not mature enough to develop anti-streptolysin O (ASO) antibodies and acute rheumatic fever[4].
    • Unless they have a special risk factor (e.g. older sibling with GAS infection)
CENTOR = 1
  • None
None of the above with CENTOR ≥2
  • Send rapid antigen detection test
    • Positive = treat
    • Negative
      • Children and adolescents
        • Send back up throat culture (treat later, if positive)
      • Adults
        • None (no need for back up throat culture)

Diagnostic testing or empiric treatment of asymptomatic household contacts of patients with acute streptococcal pharyngitis is not routinely recommended

Management

Antibiotics

Treatment can be delayed for up to 9 days and still prevent major sequelae

Penicillin Options:[5]

  • Penicillin V 250mg PO BID x 10d (child) or 500mg BID x 10d (adolescent or adult)
  • Bicillin L-A <27 kg: 0.6 million units; ≥27 kg: 1.2 million units IM x 1

Penicillin allergic (mild):[5]

  • Cefuroxime 10mg/kg PO QID x 10d (child) or 250mg PO BID x 4d

Penicillin allergic (anaphylaxis):[5]

  • Clindamycin 7.5mg/kg PO QID x 10d (child) or 450mg PO TID x 10d OR
  • Azithromycin 12mg/kg QD (child) or 500mg on day 1; then 250mg on days 2-5

Steroids

Disposition

  • Discharge

See Also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Choby BA (March 2009). "Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis". Am Fam Physician 79 (5): 383–90. PMID 19275067.
  2. Melio, Frantz, and Laurel Berge. “Upper Respiratory Tract Infection.” In Rosen’s Emergency Medicine., 8th ed. Vol. 1, n.d.
  3. Shulman, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis: 2012 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;55(10):1279–82
  4. David Cisewski An Understated Myth? Strep Throat & Rheumatic Fever
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Shulman, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis: 2012 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;55(10):1279–82
  6. EBQ:TOAST Trial
  7. Olympia, R. P. (2003). The Effectiveness of Oral Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Pharyngitis in Children and Young Adults. Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(5). doi: 10.1197/aemj.10.5.434-a