Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure
- Epileptic seizure
- Non-epileptic seizure
- Brain abscess
- Intracranial hemorrhage
- Alcohol withdrawal
- Benzodiazepine withdrawal
- Barbiturate withdrawal
- Baclofen withdrawal
- Metabolic abnormalities: hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic failure, uremia
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
- Impact seizure (head trauma)
- Acute hydrocephalus
- Arteriovenous malformation
- Seizure with VP shunt
- Toxic ingestion (amphetamines, anticholinergics, cocaine, INH, organophosphates, TCA, salicylates, lithium, phenothiazines, bupropion, camphor, clozapine, cyclosporine, fluoroquinolones, imipenem, lead, lidocaine, metronidazole, synthetic cannabinoids, theophylline, Starfruit)
- Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (pseudoseizure)
- Intracranial mass
- Hyperventilation syndrome
- Migraine headache
- Movement disorders
- Post-hypoxic myoclonus (Status myoclonicus)
- Avoid invasive medical procedures
- Some patients will improve after they are told the diagnosis in a compassionate, non-jugdemental fashion.
- If new diagnosis or diagnostic uncertainty consider admission for neurology consult and video EEG.
- Psychiatric intervention is the main treatment modality for PNES. (e.g. outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)).
- The purpose of psychiatric consultation is to identify underlying psychiatric conditions that can help direct treatment.
- If symptoms improve consider discharge with close neurology and psychiatry follow-up to rule out epilepsy and identify and treat the underlying psychiatric origin of symptoms.
- If symptoms cannot be controlled or patient/family are not accepting of diagnosis. Consider admission for observation and further evaluation.
- 25-38 percent of patients achieve seizure freedom
- Children have a better prognosis than adults, with 70 to 80 percent achieving seizure remission
- Chen DK. Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizure. Uptodate. Updated May 18, 2018. Accessed June 1, 2018. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures?search=psychogenic%20nonepileptic%20seizures&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~31&usage_type=default&display_rank=1