Schistosomiasis

Revision as of 18:52, 10 October 2013 by JCMiller (talk | contribs) (Sources added)

Background

  • Caused by parasitic trematodes of the species Schistosoma
  • Reservoir is freshwater snails
  • Endemic in areas of Africa and Southern Asia
  • The Cercariae (the stage of trematode released by the snail) can infect by direct penetration through the skin

DDx

  • UTI
  • STD
  • Intestional parasites
  • Travelers diarrhea

Diagnosis

  • Mostly a chronic condition
    • Second most common cause of esophageal varicies worldwide
    • Greatly elevated bladder cancer rates in endemic areas
    • Can cause renal failure, liver failure, pulmonary hyptertension, GI bleeds and rarely CNS symptoms
      • Mostly through fibrosis of affected organs
    • Genitourinary schistosomiasis
      • Caused by sores in the genital tract
      • May persist even after treatment
      • Greatly increases risk of HIV infection
  • Acute presentations
    • Cutaneous rash/itching from cercariae penetration
    • Fever, Abdominal pain, Fatigue, Cough, Diarrhea, Eosinophilia
  • Diagnosis
    • ELISA
    • Stool and Urine for ova/parasites
      • biopsy may be needed for those who do not show ova/parasites in stool/urine

Treatment

  • Praziquantel

Sources

  • Wikipedia
  • CDC.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis