• An attack using various biological agents, such as viruses, bacteria, or toxins to cause injury and death.[1]
    • Can affect humans, anmials/livestock, and/or plant life.
  • These disease still exist globally in many countries, but may be modified for increased effect as a weapon.
  • Smallpox last naturally occurred in 1977[2]


  • Agents are divided into three categories, based on risk.[1]
    • Category A: (highest risk) Easy to spread or transmit from person to person, and/or cause high morbidity/mortality rates.
    • Category B: Moderately easy to spread, moderate morbidity and usually low death rates.
    • Category C: Emerging agents that may be developed into weapons 2/2 ease of access or production, or have potential for high morbidity/mortality.

Specific Agents

Bioterrorism Agents[3]

Category A

Category B

  • Ricin
  • Brucellosis
  • Epsilon toxin
  • Psittacosis
  • Q Fever
  • Staph enterotoxin B
  • Typhus
  • Glanders
  • Melioidosis
  • Food safety threats
  • Water safety threats
  • Viral encephalitis

Category C

Differential Diagnosis

Mass casualty incident

See Also

External Links