Cold injuries


Whid chill chart
  • Frostbite occurs only when ambient temperatures are well below freezing
  • Nonfreezing cold injuries occur due to exposure to cold conditions above freezing

Swiss Hypothermia Staging System[1]

Classification Temperature Signs/Symptoms
I / Mild 32-35°C (90-95°F) Shivering, awake
II / Moderate 28-32°C (82-90°F) Shivering, depressed mental status
III / Severe 20-28°C (68-82°F) unconscious/severely depressed mental status, shivering ceases
IV / Profound <20°C (68°F) unobtainable VS

Clinical Features

Differential Diagnosis

Cold injuries



See Also

External Links


  1. Brown et al., Accidental Hypothermia. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1930-1938