Intralipid

(Redirected from Lipid emulsion)

General

  • Type: Lipid emulsion therapy
  • Dosage Forms: 10%, 20%, and 30% lipid emulsions
    • Note that 20% is used for lipid rescue therapy for systemic drug toxicity[1]
  • Routes of Administration: IV
  • Common Trade Names: Intralipid, Lipid Rescue [2]

Adult Dosing

Note that dosing for adults and children is not standardized but is based on case reports and recommendations[3]

  • 1.5 mL/kg bolus over 1 minute[4][5]
    • Note that dosing is based on lean or ideal body mass[6]
    • Followed by 0.25 mL/kg/min for 20 min or until hemodynamic stability is achieved.[7]

Persistent Cardiovascular Collapse

  • May repeat bolus once or twice for persistent cardiovascular collapse[8]
  • May double rate of infusion to 0.5 mL/kg/min for persistent hypotension[9]

After Cardiovascular Stability Achieved

  • Maintain infusion for at least 10 minutes[10]

Simplified Protocol[11]

  • Based on 'average' 70 kg patient
    • 100 mL IV bolus over 1 minute
    • Infusion at 18 mL/h IV

Pediatric Dosing

As with adults, pediatric dosing is not standardized[12]

  • Initial bolus of 0.8 - 3 mL/kg[13]
  • No recommendations provided for rate of ongoing infusion

Special Populations

Emergency department indications[14][15]

Contraindications

  • Allergy to class/drug

Adverse Reactions

Serious

  • Asystole (case reported) [16]
  • Fat embolism
  • Hypersensitivity reactions
  • ARDS

Common

  • Pancreatitis[17]
  • Hypertriglyceridemia[17]
  • Interferes with some lab measurements
    • Glucose and magnesium concentrations become inaccurate
    • Creatinine and lipase become unmeasurable

Pharmacology

  • Half-life:
  • Metabolism:
  • Excretion:
  • Mechanism of Action:
    • Unclear, but proposed mechanisms include[18]:
      • Lipid sink/partition
        • Emulsion surrounds lipophilic drug molecule, partitioning it from target organs
      • Cardiac metabolism
        • Fatty acids provide the myocardium with a ready energy source, improving cardiac contractility

Comments

  • Avoid co-administration of:[19]
    • Vasopressin
    • Calcium channel blockers
    • Beta-blockers
    • Local anesthetics
    • High-dose epinephrine
    • Propofol

See Also

External Links

References

  1. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  2. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  3. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  4. Cave, G. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as Antidote Beyond Local Anesthetic Toxicity: A Systematic Review. 2009. 16(9)815–824
  5. https://canadiem.org/iv-lipid-emulsion-for-drug-toxicity-in-the-ed/
  6. https://canadiem.org/iv-lipid-emulsion-for-drug-toxicity-in-the-ed/
  7. Dillane D, Finucane BT. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Can J Anaesth. 2010 Apr;57(4):368-80.
  8. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  9. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  10. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  11. https://canadiem.org/iv-lipid-emulsion-for-drug-toxicity-in-the-ed/
  12. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  13. Lipid emulsion (conventional, soybean oil-based): Drug information. Uptodate. Accessed May 15 2019.
  14. http://www.lipidrescue.org/
  15. https://canadiem.org/iv-lipid-emulsion-for-drug-toxicity-in-the-ed/
  16. Cole JB et al. Asystole immediately following intravenous fat emulsion for overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2014;10(3)307-310
  17. 17.0 17.1 Kostic MA and Gorelick M. Review of the use of lipid emulsion in nonlocal anesthetic poisoning. Pediatric Emergency Care 2014;30:427-436
  18. https://canadiem.org/iv-lipid-emulsion-for-drug-toxicity-in-the-ed/
  19. http://www.lipidrescue.org/

Authors:

Michael Holtz