Pelvic inflammatory disease

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Background

Pelvic anatomy.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) comprises spectrum of infections of the upper reproductive tract:
  • It is the most common serious infection in women aged 16 to 25 years and begins as cervicitis (commonly due to GC or chlamydia) that may progress to polymicrobial infection.
    • Initial lower tract infection may be asymptomatic
    • Most common cause of death is rupture of a tubo-ovarian abscess
    • Can be caused by organisms such as M. genitalium which is very difficult to isolate and will not be picked up on routine testing
  • Bilateral tubal ligation does not confer protection against risk[1]

Risk factors[2]

  • Age < 25
  • Age at first sexual intercourse < 20
  • Non-white ethnicity
  • Nulliparous
  • History of transmitted diseases, especially chlamydia
  • IUD within 21 days after insertion[3]

Clinical Features

History

Physical Exam

  • Cervical motion tenderness
  • Adnexal tenderness (Most sensitive finding - Sn ~95%)
  • Mucopurulent cervicitis
    • Absence should prompt consideration of another diagnosis
  • RUQ Pain
    • May indicate perihepatic inflammation (particularly if jaundice also present)

Differential Diagnosis

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic origin

Abdominal origin

Evaluation

PID with pyosalpinx on transvaginal ultrasound: bilateral adenexal cysts consistent with pyosalpinges (white arrows).
PID on CT with bilateral adnexal complex fluid-filled and thick-walled cysts typical for tubo-ovarian abcess formation and an associated ileus.

Workup

  • Urine pregnancy
  • Wet mount
  • Endocervical swab (for GC, Chlamydia)
  • CBC
  • ESR/CRP
  • Urine culture, analysis (to exclude UTI)
  • Pelvic ultrasound
    • Ultrasound sensitivity may be as low as 56% and specificity of 85% [6]
  • Consider CT to rule-out other causes of lower abdominal/pelvic pain
    • Multiple intra-abdominal processes can cause cervical motion tenderness, including appendicitis

CDC Empiric Diagnosis Criteria[7]

Due to inability to test for all causative pathogens and the potential for serious complications such as infertility, the CDC has made this a purposefully vague condition with a low threshold for empiric treatment

  • Woman at risk for STIs
  • Pelvic or lower abdominal pain
  • No cause for the illness other than PID can be identified
  • At least one of the following on pelvic exam:
    • CMT
    • Uterine tenderness
    • Adnexal tenderness.
  • Additional criteria that make the diagnosis more likely:
    • Oral temperature >101° F (>38.3° C)
    • Abnormal cervical or vaginal mucopurulent discharge
    • Presence of abundant numbers of WBC on saline microscopy of vaginal fluid
    • Elevated ESR
    • Elevated CRP
    • Laboratory documentation of cervical infection with GC or chlamydia

Management

Antibiotics

  • No sexual activity for 2 weeks;
  • Treat all partners who had sex with patient during previous 60 days prior to symptom onset

Outpatient Antibiotic Options

Inpatient Antibiotic Options

IUD

  • No change in treatment if IUD in place (may treat without removal)

Disposition

Admit

Discharge

  • 72hr follow up
  • Instruct patient to abstain from sex or adhere strictly to condom use until partner treatment and symptoms have abated
  • HIV+ is not an automatic criteria for admission, consider overall clinical impression

Complications

See Also

References

  1. Shepherd SM et al. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Clinical Presentation. Jan 2017. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/256448-clinical#b1.
  2. Simms I et al. Risk factors associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Infect. 2006 Dec; 82(6): 452–457.
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/pid.htm
  4. Norris DL, Young JD. UTI. EM Clin N Am. 2008; 26:413-30.
  5. Norris DL, Young JD. UTI. EM Clin N Am. 2008; 26:413-30.
  6. Lee DC, Swaminathan AK. Sensitivity of ultrasound for the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess: a case report and literature review. J Emerg Med. 2011 Feb;40(2):170-5. doi: 10.1016 PMID 20466506
  7. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/pid.htm
  8. Hayes BD. Trick of the Trade: IV ceftriaxone for gonorrhea. October 9th, 2012 ALiEM. https://www.aliem.com/2012/10/trick-of-trade-iv-ceftriaxone-for/. Accessed October 23, 2018.
  9. Update to CDC's Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection, 2020 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6950a6.htm
  10. Ness RB et al. Effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient treatment strategies for women with pelvic inflammatory disease: results from the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Randomized Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:929–37
  11. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021;70(No. RR-4):1–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1external icon
  12. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021;70(No. RR-4):1–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1external icon
  13. Ross J, Guaschino S, Cusini M, Jensen J, 2017 European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Feb;29(2):108-114. doi: 10.1177/0956462417744099. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
  14. CDC PID Treatment http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/pid.htm
  15. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021;70(No. RR-4):1–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1external icon