Viral hemorrhagic fevers


  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses characterized by fever and hemorrhage
  • Caused by four distinct families of RNA viruses[1]
    • Filoviridae
    • Flaviviridae
    • Bunyaviridae
    • Arenaviridae

VFHs Communicable by Person-to-Person Spread

Differential Diagnosis

Fever in traveler

Bioterrorism Agents[2]

Category A

Category B

  • Ricin
  • Brucellosis
  • Epsilon toxin
  • Psittacosis
  • Q Fever
  • Staph enterotoxin B
  • Typhus
  • Glanders
  • Melioidosis
  • Food safety threats
  • Water safety threats
  • Viral encephalitis

Category C

See Also

Travel Medicine


  1. Martines RB, Ng DL, Greer PW, Rollin PE, Zaki SR. Tissue and cellular tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Pathol. 2015 Jan;235(2):153-74. doi: 10.1002/path.4456.
  2. Accessed 02/26/16