Template:Diagnosis of SBP

Diagnosis of SBP via Ascitic Fluid Analysis

Standard Evaluation

  • Paracentesis results supporting a diagnosis of SBP:
    • Absolute neutrophil count (PMNs) ≥250, pH <7.35, OR blood-ascites pH gradient >0.1[1]
    • Bacteria on gram stain (single type)
    • SAAG > 1.1
      • Diagnostic of portal hypertension with 97% accuracy[2]
      • SBP rarely develops in patients without portal hypertension
    • Protein < 1, Glucose > 50 (otherwise concern for secondary bacterial peritonitis)

For bloody tap, subtract 1 WBC for every 250 RBC[3]

If on peritoneal dialysis

See Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis

  • Cell count >100/mm with >50% neutrophils most consistent with infection[4]
  • Wilkerson R, Sinert, R. The Use of Paracentesis in the Assessment of the Patient With Ascites. Ann Emerg Med 2009, 54(3): 465-68.
  • Runyon BA, Montano AA, Akriviadis EA, et al. The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117:215.
  • Hoefs JC "Increase in ascites white blood cell and protein concentrations during diuresis in patients with chronic liver disease."Hepatology. 1981;1(3):249. PMID 7286905
  • ISPD GUIDELINES/RECOMMENDATIONS http://www.ispd.org/guidelines/articles/update/ispdperitonitis.pdf