Stridor

Background

  • Stridor refers to harsh upper airway sounds, classically inspiratory

Clinical Features

Differential Diagnosis

Stridor

Trauma

Infectious Disorders

Abscesses

Neoplastic Disorders

  • Neoplasms/tumors

Allergic and Auto-Immune Disorders

  • Spasmodic/tracheobronchitis
  • Angioedema/Angioneurotic edema

Metabolic, Storage Disorders

  • Cerebral Gaucher's of infants (acute)
  • Tracheobronchial amyloidosis

Biochemical Disorders

Congenital, Developmental Disorders

Psychiatric Disorders

  • Somatization disorder

Anatomical or Mechanical

  • Foreign body aspiration
  • Acute gastric acid/aspiration syndrome
  • Airway obstruction
  • Neck compartment hemorrhage/hematoma

Vegetative, Autonomic, Endocrine Disorders

Poisoning

Chronic Pediatric Conditions

Pediatric stridor

  • A minimal amount of edema or inflammation in the pediatric airway can result in significant obstruction
    • Can lead to rapid decompensation

<6mo

  • Laryngotracheomalacia
    • Accounts for 60%
    • Usually exacerbated by viral URI
    • Dx w/ flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy
  • Vocal cord paralysis
    • Stridor associated w/ feeding problems, hoarse voice, weak and/or changing cry
    • May have cyanosis or apnea if bilateral (less common)
  • Subglottic stenosis
    • Congenital vs 2/2 prolonged intubation in premies
  • Airway hemangioma
    • Usually regresses by age 5
    • Associated w/ skin hemangiomas in beard distribution
  • Vascular ring/sling

>6mo

  • Croup
    • viral laryngotracheobronchitis
    • 6 mo- 3 yr, peaks at 2 yrs
    • Most severe on 3rd-4th day of illness
    • Steeple sign not reliable- diagnose clinically
  • Epiglottitis
    • H flu type B
      • Have higher suspicion in unvaccinated children
    • Rapid onset sore throat, fever, drooling
    • Difficult airway- call anesthesia/ ENT early
  • Bacterial tracheitis
    • Rare but causes life-threatening obstruction
    • Sx of croup + toxic-appearing = bacterial tracheitis
  • Foreign body (sudden onset)
    • Marked variation in quality or pattern of stridor
  • Retropharyngeal abscess
    • Fever, neck pain, dysphagia, muffled voice, drooling, neck stiffness/torticollis/extension

Evaluation

Management

  • Treat underlying cause

Disposition

  • Based on underlying cause

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Ernst A, Feller-Kopman D, Becker HD, Mehta AC. Central airway obstruction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004